|Below is a brief description of the most
commonly referred to models and frameworks of drug use. These provide different ways
of viewing, understanding, planning and reviewing interventions. Other models (such
as moral, pharmacological, developmental, behavioural, psychodynamic, etc) can also be
used to explain drug use but are not mentioned further here.
Further information can be
accessed by clicking on the links which will take you to downloadable PowerPoint
presentations (identified by 'pp' after the link - best with Internet Explorer 4.0 or
above & PowerPoint 95 or above ). For more information about the PowerPoint features
click on PowerPoint Index.
Models of Drug Use
Social Learning Model
Shafer's Patterns of Use
Thorley's Framework (Inotx, Reg Use, Dep)
Liver Lover Livelihood Law
Stages of Change
Solution Focused Brief Therapy
Models of Drug Use
||Drug use is functional with positive and negative
||Drug use is learned (and can be 'unlearned')
||Social setting important
||Controlled use is possible
||Genetic predisposition to addiction
||Biochemical reaction to alcohol or other drugs
|Interaction Framework (DIE) pp
main domains interact to resulting in the drug experience:
Drug (dose, strength, purity, etc)
Individual (age, size, psychology, etc)
Environment (family, culture, socio-economic factors, etc)
|Shafer's patterns of drug use
reflect different styles of drug use. Majority of users fit within the first three
categories. However, clinical samples may be over-represented by last two groups.
One stage doesn't necessarily lead to another.
Experimental: Initial, possibly single or short-term use
Social/Recreational: controlled use in a social setting (largest
Situational: used for specific reason (eg to study, to calm down
before an important interview)
Intensive: binge use (tends to be intermettent - eg adolescent weekend
Compulsive: daily use with signs of dependence - see below.
|Thorley's Framework pp
overlapping areas of drug-related problems (beyond simply consumption):
Intoxication: short-term (accidents, overdose, hep C & HIV, domestic
Regular Use: drip, drip, smoke, smoke (organ damage, financial problems)
Dependence: Stuckness & exclusiveness of use (withdrawal, obsession,
|Four Ls pp
Four categories of
drug-related problems useful as assessment checklist:
Liver (physical and psychological health)
Lover (relationships: family, friends, peers)
Livelihood (employment, recreation, financial, lifestyle)
Law (legal, statutory issues)
|Stages of Change pp
described as person moves through change process (process attached to each stage also
Pre-contemplation (not thinking about change - either happy user or learned
Contemplation (thinking about change)
Preparation (decision and early action plans made)
Action (initial action taken, not yet consolidated)
Maintenance (change over time, changed behaviour replaced by alternatives)
Relapse (not a stage, but a common move back to any former stage)
Focus on reducing harms associated
with drug use rather than reducing drug use per se.
Use Thorley & 4 Ls to identify harms.
Should not promote drug use.
Can be useful at all stages of change.
Harm Reduction Steps (Problem Solving Approach) Harm Reduction Steps (Problem Solving Approach)
Identify drug-related problem(s)
Choose best solution/s
Try it/them out
Re-plan as necessary
|Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT)pp
but focus on success. Looks for what's working rather than what's broken. Seeks
identification of change if problem was not there. Works on 'exceptions to the problem'
generated by client's own experience - ie the client has the answers. Key points:
||Acknowledge distress but focus on success
||If it' working do it more, if it's not do
||If it aint broken, don't fix it
Some techniques include:
Exceptions to the problem
Click here for the QIK (The Quick Interview
Click here for more